Other Cheatsheets


Thanks to Brendan O'Connor, this cheatsheet aims to be a quick reference of Scala syntactic constructions. Licensed by Brendan O'Connor under a CC-BY-SA 3.0 license.

Contributed by Brendan O'Connor


var x = 5 variable
Good val x = 5
Bad x=6
var x: Double = 5 explicit type


Good def f(x: Int) = { x*x }
Bad def f(x: Int) { x*x }
define function
hidden error: without = it's a Unit-returning procedure; causes havoc
Good def f(x: Any) = println(x)
Bad def f(x) = println(x)
define function
syntax error: need types for every arg.
type R = Double type alias
def f(x: R) vs.
def f(x: => R)
call-by-name (lazy parameters)
(x:R) => x*x anonymous function
(1 to 5).map(_*2) vs.
(1 to 5).reduceLeft( _+_ )
anonymous function: underscore is positionally matched arg.
(1 to 5).map( x => x*x ) anonymous function: to use an arg twice, have to name it.
Good (1 to 5).map(2*)
Bad (1 to 5).map(*2)
anonymous function: bound infix method. Use 2*_ for sanity's sake instead.
(1 to 5).map { val x=_*2; println(x); x } anonymous function: block style returns last expression.
(1 to 5) filter {_%2 == 0} map {_*2} anonymous functions: pipeline style. (or parens too).
def compose(g:R=>R, h:R=>R) = (x:R) => g(h(x))
val f = compose({_*2}, {_-1})
anonymous functions: to pass in multiple blocks, need outer parens.
val zscore = (mean:R, sd:R) => (x:R) => (x-mean)/sd currying, obvious syntax.
def zscore(mean:R, sd:R) = (x:R) => (x-mean)/sd currying, obvious syntax
def zscore(mean:R, sd:R)(x:R) = (x-mean)/sd currying, sugar syntax. but then:
val normer = zscore(7, 0.4)_ need trailing underscore to get the partial, only for the sugar version.
def mapmake[T](g:T=>T)(seq: List[T]) = generic type.
5.+(3); 5 + 3
(1 to 5) map (_*2)
infix sugar.
def sum(args: Int*) = args.reduceLeft(_+_) varargs.


import scala.collection._ wildcard import.
import scala.collection.Vector
import scala.collection.{Vector, Sequence}
selective import.
import scala.collection.{Vector => Vec28} renaming import.
import java.util.{Date => _, _} import all from java.util except Date.
package pkg at start of file
package pkg { ... }
declare a package.

data structures

(1,2,3) tuple literal. (Tuple3)
var (x,y,z) = (1,2,3) destructuring bind: tuple unpacking via pattern matching.
Badvar x,y,z = (1,2,3) hidden error: each assigned to the entire tuple.
var xs = List(1,2,3) list (immutable).
xs(2) paren indexing. (slides)
1 :: List(2,3) cons.
1 to 5 same as 1 until 6
1 to 10 by 2
range sugar.
() (empty parens) sole member of the Unit type (like C/Java void).

control constructs

if (check) happy else sad conditional.
if (check) happy same as
if (check) happy else ()
conditional sugar.
while (x < 5) { println(x); x += 1} while loop.
do { println(x); x += 1} while (x < 5) do while loop.
import scala.util.control.Breaks._
breakable {
for (x <- xs) {
if (Math.random < 0.1) break
break. (slides)
for (x <- xs if x%2 == 0) yield x*10 same as
xs.filter(_%2 == 0).map(_*10)
for comprehension: filter/map
for ((x,y) <- xs zip ys) yield x*y same as
(xs zip ys) map { case (x,y) => x*y }
for comprehension: destructuring bind
for (x <- xs; y <- ys) yield x*y same as
xs flatMap {x => ys map {y => x*y}}
for comprehension: cross product
for (x <- xs; y <- ys) {
println("%d/%d = %.1f".format(x,y, x*y))
for comprehension: imperative-ish
for (i <- 1 to 5) {
for comprehension: iterate including the upper bound
for (i <- 1 until 5) {
for comprehension: iterate omitting the upper bound

pattern matching

Good (xs zip ys) map { case (x,y) => x*y }
Bad (xs zip ys) map( (x,y) => x*y )
use case in function args for pattern matching.
val v42 = 42
Some(3) match {
case Some(v42) => println("42")
case _ => println("Not 42")
"v42" is interpreted as a name matching any Int value, and "42" is printed.
val v42 = 42
Some(3) match {
case Some(`v42`) => println("42")
case _ => println("Not 42")
"`v42`" with backticks is interpreted as the existing val v42, and "Not 42" is printed.
val UppercaseVal = 42
Some(3) match {
case Some(UppercaseVal) => println("42")
case _ => println("Not 42")
UppercaseVal is treated as an existing val, rather than a new pattern variable, because it starts with an uppercase letter. Thus, the value contained within UppercaseVal is checked against 3, and "Not 42" is printed.

object orientation

class C(x: R) same as
class C(private val x: R)
var c = new C(4)
constructor params - private
class C(val x: R)
var c = new C(4)
constructor params - public
class C(var x: R) {
assert(x > 0, "positive please")
var y = x
val readonly = 5
private var secret = 1
def this = this(42)

constructor is class body
declare a public member
declare a gettable but not settable member
declare a private member
alternative constructor
new{ ... } anonymous class
abstract class D { ... } define an abstract class. (non-createable)
class C extends D { ... } define an inherited class.
class D(var x: R)
class C(x: R) extends D(x)
inheritance and constructor params. (wishlist: automatically pass-up params by default)
object O extends D { ... } define a singleton. (module-like)
trait T { ... }
class C extends T { ... }
class C extends D with T { ... }
interfaces-with-implementation. no constructor params. mixin-able.
trait T1; trait T2
class C extends T1 with T2
class C extends D with T1 with T2
multiple traits.
class C extends D { override def f = ...} must declare method overrides.
new"f") create object.
Bad new List[Int]
Good List(1,2,3)
type error: abstract type
instead, convention: callable factory shadowing the type
classOf[String] class literal.
x.isInstanceOf[String] type check (runtime)
x.asInstanceOf[String] type cast (runtime)
x: String ascription (compile time)